The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), designed by MAN Technologie, is a 50-m diameter single-dish telescope optimized for astronomical observations at millimeter wavelengths (0.85 mm < λ < 4 mm). The LMT Project is a bi-national collaboration between México and the U.S.A. The institutions leading this effort are the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass) respectively.
A principal scientific goal of the LMT is to understand the physical processes of structure formation and its evolutionary history throughout the Universe. More specifically, the LMT has the capability to investigate subjects as diverse as the constitution of comets and planetary atmospheres, the formation of extra-solar planets and the birth and evolution of stars, the hierarchical growth of galaxies and clusters and their large-scale distribution, as well as the cosmic microwave background and its anisotropies.
The selected telescope site of Volcán Sierra Negra (lat. ~ +19°), situated ~ 100 km east of INAOE, in the Mexican state of Puebla, is at an altitude of 4,600 m (15,000 ft.) and provides excellent millimeter wavelength transmission throughout the year.
The LMT is an open-air telescope which has been designed to provide a pointing accuracy better than 1 arcsec under median wind-loading conditions (v < 5 m/s). Following the characterization and correction of the telescope surface under the typical deforming effects of wind, gravity and temperature gradients, an r.m.s. accuracy better than 75 micron has been achieved. HAWC is a facility designed to observe gamma rays and cosmic rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. TeV gamma rays are the highest energy photons ever observed — 1 TeV is 1 trillion electron volts (eV), about 1 trillion times more energetic than visible light! These photons are born in the most extreme environments in the known universe: supernova explosions, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts.
Cosmic rays are charged particles which achieve energies far beyond what we can create in man-made particle accelerators. (The highest energy cosmic ray ever observed was 300 million TeV.) The origin of such particles has been a mystery for over 100 years. Gamma rays are though to be correlated with the acceleration sites of charged cosmic rays, so we observe them to help answer this and other cosmic questions.
HAWC is a facility designed to observe gamma rays and cosmic rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. TeV gamma rays are the highest energy photons ever observed — 1 TeV is 1 trillion electron volts (eV), about 1 trillion times more energetic than visible light! These photons are born in the most extreme environments in the known universe: supernova explosions, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. Cosmic rays are charged particles which achieve energies far beyond what we can create in man-made particle accelerators. (The highest energy cosmic ray ever observed was 300 million TeV.) The origin of such particles has been a mystery for over 100 years. Gamma rays are though to be correlated with the acceleration sites of charged cosmic rays, so we observe them to help answer this and other cosmic questions.
HAWC is located on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near Puebla, Mexico at an altitude of 4100 meters (13,500 feet). The detector has an instantaneous field of view covering 15% of the sky, and during each 24 hour period HAWC observes two-thirds of the sky. Using the HAWC Observatory, we are performing a high-sensitivity synoptic survey of the gamma rays from the Northern Hemisphere.
5 de mayo battle and its legends
On this tour you will visit the Zócalo de Puebla, its cathedral, city call and library. Walking through the old Xanenetla town where you will be able to admire its street art. You will go through the secret tunnels used during different wars and end up in Fuerte de Loreto, place where the battle of Puebla against the French army was held on May 5th of 1862. To wrap things up and get your energy back from all this touring you will taste the traditional “Pasita Poblana”, a drink prepared with raisin alcohol, cheese and dried fruits.
Visit to Cholula with workshop on prehispanic jewelry and codices
Our private guide will explain about the local museum and the pyramid of Cholula, the biggest foundation pyramid in the world (biggest base). A panoramic tour with final stop at Zocalo de San Pedro Cholula, Ex Convento de San Gabriel and Capilla Real, with some free time for shopping and catching your breath.
After this and lead but a group of anthropologists you will go through a workshop of stone and crystals that were used by ancient Cholutecas to elaborate prehispanic jewelry. Or else, you could elaborate your own ancient codex.
Mezcal, beer and flowers
You’ll start your journey in Chipilo, were a private guide will take you to a handmade cheese factory where you’ll be able to try some traditional cheese. Continuing to Atlixco, the city of flowers just below the Popocatepetl volcano, were you will see fields of flowers and color as far as your eyes can see.
After this you will visit the local beer brewery “5 de mayo” and some local mezcalerias, where you will taste some traditional drinks.
Library and the star of Puebla
A guided tour through the historical center of Puebla declared a world heritage by UNESCO in 1987. Here you will visit the zocalo of the city and its cathedral, which has the biggest cathedral towers in the continent. You will also visit the city hall, the library and finish your tour with the famous star of Puebla, which holds the world Guinnes record for the biggest portable observation wheel, with a diameter of 69.8m.
Contemporary Puebla: International Baroque Museum and Vienna House of Music
✓ Visit The International Baroque Museum, a Baroque art museum designed by Japanese architect Toyo Ito.
✓ Visit The Vienna House of Music in Puebla, a space dedicated to sound; as well as a meeting place of great composers of history.
You will then relax on the museum terrace enjoying the spectacular view with wine and canapés.
Tour through the historic center visiting the Cathedral of Puebla, Municipal Palace, Chapel of the Rosary and Palafoxiana Library. You will get to taste some delicious typical dishes such as: Tamales, Chalupas Poblanas, Pelonas, Molotes, Cemitas, Green and Red Pipian, and the Traditional Mole Poblano, learning about its ingredients and how they are cooked, as well as a Molino de Mole which is the place where all the ingredients are processed the traditional way. You will also taste sweet potatoes, cookies of Sta. Clara, borrachitos, and more. This tour includes a small cookbook as a gift.
Cholula with talavera workshop
Your first stop will be the Talavera factory. There you will see and learn how these emblematic crafts of Puebla are made. Our local guide will give you an explanation of the Pyramid of Cholula, the largest in the world in terms of its basement and the site museum. You will continue to the Temple of San Francisco Acatepec and Temple of Santa María Tonanzintla. After this you will have a panoramic tour with final stop in the Zócalo de San Pedro Choula, Former Convent of San Gabriel and the Royal Chapel. There will have some free time to purchases, drink some Pulque and eat Chapulines.
The National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics is a Mexican science research institute located in Tonantzintla, Puebla.
Founded by presidential decree on 11 November 1971, it has over 100 researchers in astrophysics, optics, electronics and computing science, with postgraduate programs in these areas. INAOE is one of 30 public research centers sponsored by the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACyT). The Institute, in partnership with the University of Massachusetts Amherst, developed the Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico on the Puebla-Veracruz border.